Computersimulation für Brandschutz und Fußgängerverkehr


Flow direction: Unidirectional

Boundary condition: Open

Place of research: Mecca, Saudi Arabia (during Hajj)

Subjects: Mainly male pilgrims

Data collection:

  • Video recordings of a 27.7 m x 22.5 m large area in front of a 44-m-wide entrance of a bridge were evaluated.
  • With a computer algorithm the positions and speeds of the pedestrians were extracted.
  • The evaluation of the video recordings was restricted to a 20 m X 12 m wide area in order to avoid any boundary effects of the measurment algorithm.
  • The resolution of the video recordings was 25 pixels per meter and 8 frames per second.

Fundamental Diagram


The data can be found here.


D. Helbing, A. Johansson and H. Al-Abideen
Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study
Physical Review E 75, 046109, 2007

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